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The wondrous Eupalenion aqueduct of Samos was declared an International Landmark of Engineering

Featured The wondrous Eupalenion aqueduct of Samos was declared an International Landmark of Engineering

The proclamation of the Eupalenion aqueduct in Samo, as an International Historic Landmark, by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is a great distinction for Greece.

The Eupalenion Aqueduct in Pythagorion, Samos, is a world-famous monument of human construction, an unforgettable technical work that operated successfully for about 1100 years.

The Eupalenion is a 1036m long tunnel near Pythagorion, Samos, which was built in the 6th century BC. to serve as an aqueduct. Its particular feature was that it was opened at the same time on both sides of the mountain: this trench was open at both ends as Herodotus notes. It was thanks to the ancient "father of history" that it became known. The two tunnels met roughly in the middle with remarkable precision, which was a major achievement for the technology of the time.

Part of the tunnel is currently accessible.

It is estimated, as wikipedia says, that the purpose of the tunnel was not only to transfer water from the source behind the mountain to the capital of Samos (today Pythagorion), but this was done in a way that was not detectable by raiders; who could easily, if they saw a surface pipeline, destroy it and deprive the city of its main resource. From the tunnel, the water ran through the city wall.

The reason why there are two parallel tunnels is that at the time of designing and implementing the project the source was at a certain height (higher than the level of the tunnel), but after the main stoa was constructed, the source began to flow lower, so it could no longer flow through this course. For this reason it was necessary to open an auxiliary, smaller tunnel at a lower level. The smaller tunnel was drilled through the main gallery, with the help of vertical troughs.

Herodotus, the only source we have for the Eupalinos tunnel, describes both the main and the auxiliary tunnels.

"The rehabilitation, preservation and promotion of this great timeless monument, the Eupalenion Aqueduct, has been one of the priorities of the Ministry of Culture, so I can not hide my joy today, here in front of you," the Minister of Culture noted during the inauguration of the restored work.
"I want to thank those who have contributed over the years, not only with their scientific adequacy but also with their love, in order to complete the project. The excavation work of Mr. Kienast and the German Archaeological Institute, the contribution of the Greek scientists, the great restoration work and the maintenance work of the Ministry of the Environment, all contributed to making this work in Samos a place of destination and contributes to the development of the island. "

"When you cross this monument - and I strongly suggest it - one feels, apart from the capability of Eupalinos, the engineer from Megara, the trouble and the work of the people who built it in this unique way at that time but also - taking a leap in time - the faith, dedication and the work of those who have undertaken over time to excavate, preserve and restore it. This is also the great gift of the aqueduct: timelessness and continuity, as we receive it from previous generations and deliver it in the future.
The exemplary restoration, conservation and promotion of the Eupalenion Aqueduct demonstrates that coordinated cooperation and the efforts of the operators can bring great results. We are in cooperation with the North Aegean Region to be able to complete complementary infrastructure projects in the surrounding area ", he concluded.

The head of the depiction of the Eupalenion Aqueduct project of the German Archaeological Institute in Greece and the pioneer architect of the project, archaeologist and associate member of the Academy of Athens, Hermann J. Kienast, in the central speech of the event, under the title "The Review of the Euphalenius Orydra" that "there are many aspects of tunneling that continue to be discussed": "how it was designed, how the levels of the two entrances were determined, and how the direction of alignment of the tunnel was determined". There was also the question of the dating of the monument, which "we can deduce that it was built before the period of Polycrates, ie around the middle of the 6th century. B.C.".

"Eupalineo, a project with a particularly innovative concept and thought, has become a trend," said Konstantinos Memos, professor of the National Technical University of Athens and organizer of the event. The latter recounted a small history of the proclamation of the Eupalenion Aqueduct as an International Historical Landmark and stressed: "The Eupalenion  Aqueduct characterizes the technical ability and excellence of the Ancient Greeks. Through it, the part of ancient Greece, which has become less popular, is projected."

Dimosthenis Svolopoulos, supervisor of the recent Restoration, Maintenance and Demonstration Project, and Head of the Department of
Restoration of Ancient Monuments of the Ministry of the Interior spoke on "The history of the Eupalenion Aqueduct seems to trace a wide circle over time: its conception, design, execution was made in antiquity by a prosperous city in full prosperity. The general design of the project, the phase of its implementation required a high level of intelligence and knowledge, method, craftsmanship, collective work and education. Twenty-five centuries later, culture and our country responded to a new challenge: the rescue of the monument, its restoration and its emergence. "

Dr. Mark Kozak-Holland, business consultant and writer of the Lessons from History series on the study of project management in antiquity, presented data on the principles, methodology and processes applied to technical works during the 7th century BC

The event, under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy and Finance. and with the support of the Municipality of Samos, was held in the crowded City Hall of Samos. It was followed by the unveiling of a Memorial Plaque at the South Entrance, by the Minister of Culture and Elias Sayah Governor in the ASCE International Region.

" that "there are many aspects of tunneling that continue to be discussed": "how it was designed, how the levels of the two entrances were determined, and how the direction of alignment was determined" of the trench. It was also the question of the dating of the monument, which "we can deduce that it was built before the period of Polycrates, ie around the middle of the 6th century. B.C.".

"The Eupalineo, a project with a particularly innovative concept and thought, has become a trend," said Konstantinos Memos, professor of the National Technical University of Athens and organizer of the event. The latter made a small history of the proclamation of the Euphaleion of Orythra as an International Historical Landmark and stressed: "The Eupalinos Mines characterizes the technical ability and excellence of the Ancient Greeks. Through it, the part of ancient Greece, which has become less popular, is projected. "

Dimosthenis Svolopoulos, supervisor of the recent Restoration, Maintenance and Demonstration Project, and Head of the Department
Restoration of Ancient Monuments of the Ministry of the Interior "The history of the Euphilia Aqueduct seems to erase a wide circle over time: its conception, design, execution was made in antiquity by a prosperous city in full prosperity. The general design of the project, the phase of its implementation required a high level of intelligence and knowledge, method, craftsmanship, collective work education. Twenty-five centuries later, Culture and our country responded to a new challenge: the rescue of the monument, its attachment and its emergence. "

Dr. Mark Kozak-Holland, business consultant and writer of the Lessons from History series on the study of project management in antiquity, presented data on the principles, methodology and processes applied to technical works by at least the 7th century BC

The event, under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy and Finance. and with the support of the Municipality of Samos, was held in the crowded hall of the City Hall of Samos. He was followed by a Memorial Plaque Discovery at the South Entrance of the Upper Palatinate, by the Minister of Culture and Elias Sayah regional ASCE Governor.